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John Coffey Hays is just nineteen when he arrives in the town of Nacogdoches Republic of Texas in 1836. Moments later when a man is killed, none of the witnesses dispute that Jack acted in self-defense. Despite his young age, Jack is a man who commands perhaps just as much fear as respect.

Although Jack is too late to enlist in the fight for Texas Independence, he soon joins the ranging company of Deaf Smith and begins a thirteen-year history of defending Texans from raids by Comanche bands and Mexican bandits. When he is just twenty-three, he is made a captain of the Texas Rangers. As he becomes known as a fearless fighter, Jack leads a group of men who will follow him anywhere and under any Continue Reading »

The Homestead Act of 1862

When the Southern states seceded and their Representatives and Senators abandoned Washington D. C. in 1861 the Republicans and other former Free-Soil advocates passed the Homestead Act of 1862. The purpose of this law was to expand the homesteading requirements of the Pre-emption Act of 1841 making it easier for loyal citizens of the Union to claim land and thereby expand the concept of the “yeoman farmer”. Andrew Johnson, George Henry Evans and Horace Greeley were the primary advocates and leaders of this effort.

The law provided that any citizen of the Union could claim 160 acres of public land if willing to settle on the property and farm the land for at least five years. A three-step process was required; 1) file an application giving the boundaries of the land and pay the required fee, 2) improve the land and 3) file for a deed of title after five years. The applicant had to be a citizen of the U. S. or have filed an intent to become a citizen, be at least twenty-one years of age or the head of a household. This last stipulation enabled single women and widows to make application. The only other requirement was that the applicant had never taken up arms against the government of the U. S. After the fourteenth amendment freed all slaves, former slaves could also file a claim.

In 1866 the Southern Homestead Act was passed by Congress and signed into law. This law made it possible for poor tenant farmers and sharecroppers living in the Southern states during Reconstruction to become landowners. It proved to be not as successful as anticipated because, despite low fees and other costs associated with taking up a claim, such as the purchase of tools, transportation to the claim, seed, livestock, and other necessities, most potential applicants were unable to move from where they were mired in abject poverty.

Initially immigrants, farmers with no land of their own, single women and all citizens or persons who had filed a declaration of their intention to become a citizen qualified for “free” land. With time the requirements changed. Slaves became qualified after the Fourteenth Amendment was ratified in 1868. South Asians and East Asians born in the U. S. were qualified after the Supreme Court ruled on the United States vs. Wong Kim Ark lawsuit in 1898. However, by 1998 almost all high-quality farm lands were claimed. For immigrants entering the country legally during the 1890’s most had to file a declaration of their intent to become a citizen to be admitted. During this time the bulk of the immigrants were from Europe. Immigrants from Asia were largely excluded. Immigrants from Africa were permitted but very few applied.

The research into land acquisition is for an upcoming book.

The Donation Land Claim Act of 1850:

America’s early wealth derived from land, huge amounts of it. The land was, of course, usurped from indigenous peoples who, according to the accepted dogma of the day, could not possibly utilize all the lands they claimed. This attitude was made more palatable because of the decimation of the indigenous population by diseases they had no acquired immunity to, genocide, and serial relocation to remove them from contact with the ever-increasing influx of immigrants who had little hope of owning their own land in the countries from which they came.

Most citizens living in the Northern states believed the future of America depended upon individual farmers who owned and operated their own farms. Southerners, in general, especially the owners of slaves, wanted to be able to purchase large tracts of land and use slave labor. The concept of the “yeoman farmer” derived from Jeffersonian concepts, powerful influences in American politics in the 1840’s and 1850’s. These ideas gave rise to the Free-Soil Party from 1848-1852 and to the “New” Republican party after 1854. Southern Democrats fought against, and managed to prevent the passage, of proposed homestead bills. Their fear was that free land would attract both European immigrants and poor Southern whites to the west. The balance of power would then shift and force the end of slavery.

The availability of huge tracts of apparently empty land provided the government with the ability to populate those lands, collect taxes, and grow the economy. People in financial trouble, or just looking to improve their lifestyle could obtain free, or at minimal cost, large portions of land from which, if they were willing to struggle and work hard, they could support a family and gain the numerous benefits of being property owners.

The Donation Land Claim Act of 1850 enabled settlers to claim lands (320 or 640 acres) in the Oregon Territory consisting of the current states of Washington, Oregon, Idaho and parts of Wyoming. During that time period one man, with the help of his family, could realistically plow and put into crop production between 40 and 80 acres. The Oregon Territory land was granted free of charge from 1850-1854 after which it could be purchased from the government for $1.25 per acre until the law expired in 1855.

The Donation Land Claim Act was proceeded by the Pre-emption Act of 1846:

This law was designed to “…appropriate the proceeds of sales of public lands… and to grant “pre-emptive rights” to squatters already occupying federal lands. The law was most used by early settlers in the Kansas and Nebraska territories. The law provided that squatters who were actually living on or had made improvements to lands owned by the federal government could purchase up to 160 acres for no less than $1.25 per acre, at a public auction. If a particular tract of land was not claimed it was auctioned to the highest bidder. The squatter had to be the head of a household, a citizen of the U.S. or an immigrant intending to become naturalized, and a resident on the claimed land for a minimum of 14 months. As usual enterprising people devised a multitude of strategies to circumvent the restrictions, not excepting perjury, to obtain land or otherwise game the system for speculation.

The Pre-emption Act also provided that Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Alabama, Missouri, Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas and Michigan, or any state admitted to the Union after the Act became law, to be paid 10% of the proceeds from the sale of these public lands. To preserve ownership of the claimed land, and gain title to it, the claimant had to live on it, or consistently work to improve it, for a minimum of 5 years. If the land remained idle for six months the government could reclaim it. This was rare. The Act helped establish the doctrine of Manifest Destiny.

 

There are other special circumstances affecting the gastrointestinal (GI) system that can result in impaction of the small or large colon. The formation of fecaliths (a dehydrating and hardening of feces to the extent that it becomes stone-like), enteroliths (a mineral concretion) and meconium-induced impaction (early accumulation of fetal feces in newborns). Horses that have a recent and significant decrease in exercise, usually from an injury, can develop large colon impactions. Twice-daily feedings of grain can result in a measurable increase (up to 15%) in fluids secreted into the bowl from the cardiovascular system which can result in hypotension (reduction of circulating blood volume). This causes the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone regulatory to be activated resulting in the reabsorption of more fluid from the GI tract. This results in a dehydration of the feces and can also result in an impaction.

Four types of displacement colic are described in horses. Displacement occurs because most of the bowel is not anchored to the body wall but suspended from the dorsal abdominal wall in the mesentery. It is therefore relatively easy for a portion to move out of its normal position. Left dorsal displacementoccurs when the pelvic flexure moves toward the space found between the spleen, the left kidney and the nephrosplenic ligament the structure that attaches the spleen and kidneys to the body wall. Right dorsal displacement occurs when the colon lodges between the cecum and the body wall. The pelvic flexure can move to a position closer to the diaphragm resulting in a volvulus, a 180-degree twist along the longitudinal axis. Torsion (a twist along the axis of the mesentery) can also occur. The mesentery is the diaphanous tissue supporting the bowel through which veins, arteries and nerves are carried from the dorsal abdominal wall to the intestine.

Any type of displacement can result in an occlusion of the blood supply (partial or complete) to the involved portion of the GI tract.

Left dorsal displacement will often resolve itself following conservative medical treatment. In recalcitrant cases your veterinarian may elect to anesthetize the horse, put it on its left side, then quickly roll it to its right side while repeatedly pushing on the abdomen. Obviously, this is not a maneuver to be attempted by only one person.

An intussusception of the bowel occurs when a section of intestine “telescopes” into an adjacent section. This most often occurs at the ileocecal junction. When this happens, surgical correction is the only effective treatment. This condition is most common in horses about one year old and is almost always associated with tapeworms, other parasites, small masses and foreign bodies or severe diarrhea.

Epiploic foramen entrapment occurs when a portion of the small intestine (rarely the colon) becomes lodged in the epiploic foramen, also known at the foramen of Winslow. This opening is the communication between the abdominal cavity and the omental bursa. Entrapment of a loop of bowel can also occur through a rent (tear) in the mesentery.

Proximal enteritis (inflammation of the gut lining) is usually the result of infectious organisms, particularly Salmonella and/orClostridium species. Fusarium(a large genus of filamentous fungi) can also be the cause of enteritis. Fusariuminfections occur most commonly in the Southeastern U.S. Overfeeding a high concentrate diet can also result in enteritis. Horses suffering from enteritis have an increased risk of laminitis and thrombophlebitis. Colitis (inflammation of the lining of the colon) is most often associated with infectious caused by Salmonella species, Clostridium difficileand/or Neorickettsia risticii. This last organism is the cause of Potomac Horse Fever. Ingestion of toxic agents such as arsenic or cantharidin, as well as several plant toxins can result in colitis as well.

Gastric ulceration is associated with confinement (lack of adequate exercise), infrequent feeding, a high concentrate diet, over-use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) drugs, and from the stress associated with shipping and/or performing.

Tumors that can affect the GI tract and result in colic include lipomas (fatty tumors) that form on the mesentery and stretch the connective tissue into a stalk as it enlarges. The stalk can wrap around a section of bowel, usually the small intestine. Neoplastic growths of the GI tract can also include lymphosarcoma, leiomyomas, adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas. The last of these usually involves the stomach.

Ileus is characterized by no, or very low, movement of the intestines. Between ten and fifty percent of horses will develop ileus following abdominal surgery, with over 80% of those animals having been operated on for correction of a strangulating obstruction. Diagnosis is made using ultrasound when more than three loops of intestine lack peristaltic waves.

Hernias can result in incorporation of a loop of bowel and signs of colic. Standardbred and Tennessee Walker stallions are prone to a large inguinal ring and inguinal hernias. Umbilical and diaphragmatic hernias are rare but can occur in any breed of horses.

Non-bowel related colic include the ingestion of toxins, uterine tears and torsions, disease of the liver, ovaries, spleen, urinary system, or testicular torsion. Inflammatory conditions of the pleura (lining of the lungs and thorax), uterine contractions, laminitis and rhabdomyolysis can all present with signs resembling colic.

Parasitic infestations with Parascaris equorum(roundworms), Anoplocephala perfoliate(tapeworms), cyathostomes(Strongylus-type roundworms) and Strongylus vulgariscan all result in colic. The larvae of Strongylusspecies migrate out of the GI system and find their way into the arterial system. They are sometimes found in the cranial mesenteric artery where they can cause vasospasm as well as blockage. The regular use of modern anthelminthics has reduced the incidence of this problem.

Impaction colic is most commonly found in the pelvic flexure of the colon. It usually consists of poorly digested food lodged where the colon turns back on itself and narrows (the pelvic flexure). This condition is easily diagnoses via rectal examination, an indispensable part of the physical exam when called on a colic case. This condition is most commonly seen when the horse is confined in a small space, not receiving enough exercise and is being fed a large volume of concentrated feed, pellets and/or grain. It can also occur if the animal’s teeth need floating or if there are other dental issues preventing normal chewing (mastication). It can also occur if the animal cannot take in adequate water.

Colonic impaction will almost always respond to medical treatment. Sometimes high enemas will resolve the issue when mineral oil pumped into the stomach is not sufficient to move the blockage.

In the Southeastern U.S. coastal Bermuda hay is commonly available and used to feed horses. This type of hay can result in an impaction of the terminal ilium, the portion of the small intestine where it joins with the cecum (a large blind sac where fermentation aids digestion of roughage) and the entrance into the colon (large intestine). Obstruction of the ilium can also be the result of ascarids (intestinal parasites) after the horse has been treated for the infestation and is passing large numbers of the dead parasites. It is most commonly seen in young horses following their first deworming. When equine tapeworms are an issue treatment can result from a blockage of these dead or stunned parasites in the small intestine. When this condition occurs, the animal will usually exhibit intermittent moderate to severe abdominal pain. Distended loops of small intestine can sometimes be found on rectal exam. Ultrasound diagnosis may be necessary to identify this type of colic. Severe cases may result in gastric reflux. This usually responds to nasogastric intubation and the release of the accumulated gases from the stomach. Cases that are non-responsive to routine treatment may respond to warm soapy water or carboxymethylcellulose enemas providing the site of impaction can be located and reached rectally.

Less commonly encountered is hypertrophy of the longitudinal and/or circumferential smooth muscle layers of the small intestine (ilium or jejunum). The condition may be idiopathic (of unknown cause), or neuronal dysfunction usually associated with parasitic migration, particularly of the larval stage of ascarids. It may also be the result of increased tone of the ileocecal valve. This leads to hypertrophy of the smooth muscle of the ilium because it has to push ingesta through a smaller orifice. This diagnosis is usually made during surgery and can occur following the removal of a portion of intestine and the anastomosis (rejoining of the bowel) resulting in stricture.

Sand colic can occur when horses are pastured on sandy or heavily over-grazed pastures or fed on the ground. When I practiced in Arizona (back in the 1960’s) it was relatively common for backyard horses kept in small corrals to be fed on the ground on loose dirt. The ingested dirt or sand mostly accumulates in the pelvic flexure but may also be found in the right dorsal colon or in the cecum. The sand or dirt will irritate the mucosa (lining) and can result in diarrhea. Examination of the manure will often reveal the presence of sand and/or dirt. Accumulation and the resulting weight and abrasion on the mucosa can also result in a lack of colonic motility rather than hypermotility and diarrhea and in severe cases, rupture and peritonitis.

The diagnosis is the result of careful observation of the conditions in which the animal is kept and fed, abdominal auscultation for the sounds of hyper or hypo motility (too much or too little) and gas accumulation. Radiographs or ultrasound may be required to make the diagnosis. Medical treatment with laxatives is often effective especially with the addition of psylliumhusk. Psylliumis the common name for several members of the plant genus Plantago. Commonly marketed products of this include; Metamucil, Pinch, Fybogel, Kansyl and Luelax. Mineral oil treatment alone is less effective since it will usually float on the surface of the accumulation without penetrating. Psylliumbinds to the sand and helps to remove it. Animals with this condition may also suffer from rapid overgrowth of Salmonellaor other bacteria so antibiotic added to the treatment may be indicated. If signs of severe colic do not respond to medical treatment within a few hours surgery is indicated. Where grazing or feeding on the ground cannot be avoided prophylactic treatment feeding a pelleted psylliumproduct may be recommended by your veterinarian.

Impactions of the cecum are uncommon. They can occur when horses ingest bedding or as a result of post-operative or other pain therapy involving the use of opioids resulting in GI stasis and constipation. Because of its function as a fermentation vat gas and fluid accumulation is rapid and can lead to rupture within a day or two, if not corrected surgically. The condition can usually be diagnosed on rectal exam but rupture can occur early in the progression of the condition.

Gastric impactions are rare. It can occur following ingestion of foods that swell after eating, ingestion of bedding or poor-quality roughage, dental problems, ingestion of a foreign object or disease that interferes with normal gastric function. Ingestion of persimmons form a sticky gel in the stomach and feeding haylage can be problematic. When I practiced in Arizona ingestion or feeding of mesquite beans was a problem. Feeding sugar beet pulp can also be problematic. Diagnosis using gastroscopy or ultrasound may be necessary. Gastric impactions will often respond to treatment with water or other fluids via nasogastric intubation.

Colic is a general term used to signify abdominal pain. It is a sign of a problem, not a diagnosis. Colic can be the result of a number of gastrointestinal or abdominal problems. Most often the problem originates in the colon, the large intestine, of the horse. However, colic can also be the result of a tumor, peritonitis, a variety of plant poisons, uterine tears, torsion of the uterus, renal problems, and others.

Some of the causes of colic respond to medical treatment, others can become fatal without surgical intervention. In domestic horses, colic is the leading cause of premature death. An estimated 4-10% of the horse population will die from complications of colic. A much larger percentage will suffer from colic at some time during their lifetime.

Many different types or causes of abdominal pain in horses are commonly described. They include; gas and spasmodic colic, impaction colic, displacement in the form of torsion and volvulus colic, intussusception colic, entrapment colic, inflammatory colic, ulcerative disease colic, foal colic, herniation colic, colic the result of uterine tears or torsions, as well as other possibilities.

Perhaps the most important signs of colic that should result in a call to your veterinarian are; anorexia (won’t eat), looking around at the abdomen, depression, sometimes grunting with pain, kicking at the abdomen with a hind hoof, sinking or falling to the ground and moderate to violent rolling on the ground. Because of the manner in which the gastrointestinal tract is suspended in the equine abdomen, and its weight, a horse rolling in pain on the ground is susceptible to a tear or twisting of the mesentery (the tissue from which the intestinal tract is suspended within the abdomen) through which the intestine can twist on itself resulting in torsion (twisting of the bowel on itself longitudinally through a tear in the mesentery) or volvulus (when a loop of intestine twists around itself vertically with the mesentery that supports it resulting in bowel obstruction). When this happens the blood supply to the affected intestine is blocked or cut off entirely leading to death of the tissue, gangrene and death without successful surgical intervention.

Because of the danger of a twisted intestine from rolling the first instruction your veterinarian will provide when contacted is to keep the horse up and walking. You need to do everything possible to not allow the horse to go down and roll.

To treat uncomplicated colic your veterinarian will generally start treatment with analgesia (pain relief), if the animal is very anxious perhaps sedation, then the insertion of a nasogastric tube. The nasogastric tube will relieve any gas accumulation in the stomach and possibly from the first portion of the small intestine and will be used to pump in intestinal lubricants, laxatives and sometimes surfactants to prevent further gas accumulation. If the colic is severe and the animal doesn’t respond to the initial treatments within a reasonable amount of time it may be necessary to support the horse with intravenous fluids and possibly with nutritional support. In severe cases treatment for endotoxemia (toxins produced in the gut) may be necessary.

We generally recognize the following major types of colic; excessive e gas accumulation in the intestine (gas colic), simple obstruction (impaction colic), strangulation (volvulus or torsion colic’s), non-strangulation or infarction colic (blockage of a blood vessel to the gut), inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract (enteritis or colitis), colic from peritonitis (inflammation of the peritonium, the lining of the abdomen), and ulceration of the gastrointestinal lining or mucosa (ulcerative colic).  I will describe each of the various types of colic in future articles.

The Warrior Rabbi: 41

Joseph’s journal: 41

15 Kislev, 4808 (November, 1059)

A simple fact accounted for the amazing amount of academic study, learning, and creative productivity accomplished by my father throughout his life. I never knew him to sleep more than five hours a night.

Even with nineteen hours a day to study, learn, plan, work, think, and write, I know of no other man who could accomplish what he did, especially with the constant strain of palace intrigue. He had to keep an often drunk and unpredictable master happy. Oh yes, he was also a successful general. He could focus and concentrate his attention better and more completely than any man I have ever known.

Because of its importance to all Jews, I must say more about his Hilkhata Gavata. I am thinking about this now because this past week I dispatched eleven more copies of the work to Father’s colleagues throughout the diaspora. More copies are being made for further distribution. In this work, Father emphasized the six principles he considered the basis of belief for all Jews. He expressed thankfulness that our God has no beginning and no end. He expressed his gratefulness that resurrection is certain, and that there is an afterlife. He was grateful that Moses gave us the Torah, and that the Torah is truth and perfection. He believed the words of our sages are just, as is their lore. The study of their works is a pleasure. He thought there are rewards in this world, and whatever comes after, for the pure and the just, and that the dead are recompensed for their sins.

After my father’s death, following his wishes and instructions, I edited three books of his poetry. I named these compilations the Son of Psalms, the Son of Proverbs and the Son of Ecclesiastes.

The Son of Psalms includes his autobiographical poems, two hundred and twenty-two of them. Many of these poems are long, over a hundred lines. I included a preface to provide the historical context for some of the poems but most, I feel, need no introduction or explanation. They tell the story of who he was and how he was thinking at the moment they were completed.

The Son of Proverbs is a collection of aphorisms. Many of these were not original creations of my father, but he often repeated and used them for effect. Frequently, he would add editorial improvements to these old sayings. All of them were commonly repeated during his days, and still are today.

The Son of Ecclesiastes includes four hundred and eleven poems. All of them original works of my father. Some of the poems I included in this volume only because they did not seem to fit into the first two volumes. There are poems about solar and lunar eclipses, and earthquakes. There are a number of poems that discuss various aspects of aging and death. Not surprisingly, these latter topics came to the forefront of his thinking after he turned sixty.

Throughout his life, Father was an active correspondent. He regularly exchanged letters with Jewish community leaders, institutions, and scholars wherever they could be found, as well as with dignitaries of other Andalusian, and a few Christian kingdoms. He frequently corresponded with Jewish scholars living in Kairouan in Tunisia. That city, founded by the Umayyads over four hundred years ago, is still flourishing and still is home to a significant Jewish population today.

He also corresponded with scholars in Babylonia, Palestine, Sicily, and in several persecuted Jewish communities throughout Christian Europe. He sent and received letters from as far away as England and India. When Rabbi Hushiel of Kairouan died, blessed be his memory, Father sent requests for a memorial service to be held in his honor in Cordoba, Jaen and other Jewish communities in Andalusia. He personally organized memorial services for this man, whom he admired greatly, in Granada and Lucena.

His Jewish identity defined him. From it, he derived his own relationship to the will of God, the history of our people as well as our prehistory. He celebrated the fact of our own special language, literature, wisdom, philosophy, laws, morals, and even our own astronomy and mathematics. Since our calendar is based on the phases of the moon, Rabbis had to be experts at mathematics and astronomy to establish the proper times and dates of our holidays and holy days. He was a master of those subjects.

***

In my father’s home and mine, our cuisine is kosher, traditionally Jewish. The Shabbat meal is usually chamin, a hot stew with beans and other vegetables, and often includes chunks of lamb. We also often have pestelas, a pastry topped with sesame seeds filled with pine nuts, a small bit of meat, and onion. Sambusak, a pastry filled with mashed chickpeas, fried onions and several spices is regularly served. Everything has to be prepared ahead. Those foods that are to be consumed hot are left on the coals of Friday’s fire. They simmer slowly until it is time for the dish to be eaten. I mention this because it is almost time for our Shabbat meal. The aroma of cooking fills house and filters into my study. My mouth is full of saliva.

***

When he was at the Palace, or on a military expedition, Father underwent a self-induced metamorphosis. It was a requirement of his position as Grand Vizier to attend, and sometimes host, both social and formal gatherings. At these functions, he became a fully acclimated Berber, and a participant in all their vices. Most of those vices were contrary to the teachings of Islam. Some of them ignored the teachings of Moses. I struggle with these same issues in my current role.

Father wrote many poems praising wine, and its effects, both in Hebrew and Arabic. However, he took special care to warn me about the dangers of overindulgence. He wrote poetry praising the beauty of both the young boys, and young girls, who were servants at the orgies of food and drink. He also wrote of the children and women who were brought to these functions to entertain the men with other favors. To ameliorate this behavior, he and I had many discussions, or rather I listened to many lectures, about the Torah’s strictures against homosexuality and sex outside of marriage. Today I am still obliged to attend functions of this nature. I struggle with my own morality. Thankfully, as King Badis ages he is less inclined to these pursuits than he was previously.

Predictably, Father’s relationship with my mother was as traditionally Jewish as the meals we ate. Father rarely demonstrated any annoyance with my mother, never anger. I never saw him argue with her. In my presence, at least, he spoke to her with respect, and on rare occasions with tenderness and love. Once or twice I saw him lay his hand gently on her shoulder, the only sign of affection I was witness to.

I clearly remember one evening, about a year after my marriage, he told me he wanted to give me advice about how to treat my wife. Without saying anything more he handed me a poem, that I included in Son of Ecclesiastes. The poem is entitled Advice to a Husband and suggests not to let your wife dominate you and rule you as a husband is supposed to, she is your woman.

He was, apparently determined to provide me with all sorts of helpful advice that night. After I finished reading this poem, for a second time, I stared at him, not knowing how to respond. Saying nothing he handed me a second poem whose advice was do not take a woman into your confidence, do nothing to harm or disgrace a friend, and to not take drugs that alter your mind.

I still struggle trying to understand the context of these two poems, and what it was he expected from me. When I was still a child, he was adamant that I was to fear and respect my mother, and to always obey her. The result of all this advice and admonitions is that I am still, and probably always will be, confused about how I should relate to women.

***

I must continue this history by writing of how Father made an ally of the Taifa of Badajoz. Badajoz is a Berber controlled city/state at least eighteen days of hard travel from Granada. It is about two and a half days directly west of Merida and over ten days, northwest of Cordoba. Most importantly to Father, and to King Badis, it’s only about a week of easy travel north and slightly west of Seville. As our ally, Badajoz provided another front from which we could attack our enemy.

The king of Badajoz, Muhammad ibn Abd Allah Al-Muzaffar, held the normal antipathy of all Berbers against the Arabs of Seville, and felt and understood the threat of Sevillian hegemony. Nevertheless, my father had to use all of his diplomatic skills, as well as buying the friendship of several highly-placed notables in Al-Muzaffar’s court, to bring him into the alliance. Despite his diplomatic skills, Ha Nagid was still ambivalent, and distrustful of allies.

The Zanhadja and Zenata Berbers were once again unified. All proudly flew the Amazigh flag. The design of this flag holds many special meanings. Its blue horizontal stripe represents the Berber tribes who originally lived by the sea, the green stripe represents those Berbers originating from the Rif and Atlas mountain ranges, and the yellow stripe recalls the desert dwellers. The red Amazigh symbol in the center of the flag represents the very human yearning for freedom of all peoples, arms open, reaching for the sky. It is sad that the trust and family the flag represents was so easily put aside when the Berber tribes, for whatever reasons, fail to remain unified.