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Biking in Andalusia

I just completed a most interesting, challenging, and fun bike tour from Seville to Granada through the countryside of Southern Spain known as Andalusia. The trip was organized by the company Backroads.com and I can highly recommend their service. They supplied our group of four couples and myself with bikes (I wisely choose one with an electric assist motor to give me a boost up the many hills), helmets, and a GPS device that was loaded with our route each day.  To usher us through the experience we had two group leaders and a support person who managed the logistics for the trip. The group leaders made certain any need we had was taken care of. They also took turns riding with us each day making certain we were doing OK and helping with any mechanical problems. The leader not riding with us drove a van and the support person another. They took turns leapfrogging ahead to setup our rest stop or staying behind us with repair parts, spare wheels, etc. At each stop for the night we arrived pre-registered with our luggage waiting in our rooms. When we checked out the luggage was collected and taken to the next stop.

During each day’s rides, morning and afternoon, one of the vans was waiting every 10 km, or so, with ice water, soft drinks, electrolyte replacers, juice and a huge assortment of snacks including fresh fruit. When we arrived at the carefully chosen reserved spot for lunch the leaders knew everything about the owners of the place and were obviously welcomed guests. The same reception awaited us at each hotel we were booked into by the company, all first- class establishments. The lunches were uniformly spectacular, in spectacular locations, and with panoramic views of the country we had just traversed. It was impossible for me to eat even a taste of everything that was prepared for us even though it was uniformly delicious. Then we were off again for our afternoon ride, again with rest stops. 

Each day there were several choices that one could make about how far and how much elevation gain you felt you wanted to ride. I think the longest day I had was about 80 km, but with a couple of thousand feet of elevation gain. We usually finished the day of riding about 4 or 5 pm. Those of us who opted for a shorter day were given a ride in one of the vans to that night’s hotel. Others could extend their day with an extra loop and/or ride all the way to the hotel. After a nice hot shower and, for me, a generous slathering with topical analgesic pain relief cream, we had the choice of a dip in the swimming pool or a (paid separately) massage. We would gather again about 6:30 pm for drinks and then some sort of cultural/educational event. We had tours of an olive oil plant, another most interesting lecture with sampling of wines and highest quality extra virgin olive oils from the region we were in, and a walking tour of Rhonda with lots of history. There was also a nature walk through a national park on top of a mountain where we started our day of riding with a long descent. One of the choices for the more experienced (gung-ho) riders was to ride up that mountain in an attempt to break the existing speed record for participants in these tours. I did NOT participate but one of our two experts managed it in just a little over an hour. The record is 55 + minutes. On our last night we were treated to a rousing performance by an accomplished guitarist, two flamenco singers and an elegant and beautiful flamenco dancer. The performance was interrupted by two standing ovations from the 12 of us. 

Our dinners were, as well, uniformly well planned and of outstanding quality. Nobody could go hungry on one of these trips or complain about the chow. 

The routes we took were almost all on low traffic back roads, carefully managed to keep us off major roads except for short stretches needed to get us to another back road. My concerns about having to ride on narrow roads with heavy car, bus and truck traffic were unwarranted. Perhaps surprisingly my 83-year-old knees handled the bike riding just fine. The same cannot be said for managing up and down stairs particularly ones of flagstone with no handrails. There seem to be a lot of those in this part of the world.

Biking in Andalusia

On day 2 I was the first in to the rest stop at the top of this long hill, thanks to my electric assist motor. No way was that going to happen without that motor. That’s Rhonda in the distance, where we started. If you zoom in on that last curve you will see two of our group rounding the curve and heading up to us.

Two days ago, I was sitting on a slatted wood bench in the Santa Polomia train station in Lisbon waiting for the night train to Madrid. The well-worn often varnished oak slats were bolted on either end to two identical molded cast iron supports incorporating two feet and a back. It is a familiar design of unknown origin and age but found almost any place in the world.

I am convinced train passengers, at least here in Portugal and Spain, are less stressed and more acceptable to their situation than passengers in airports anywhere I have been. Airport passengers seem to wear worried frowns and obvious apprehension about the status of their fight, weather conditions, and a multitude of other potential problems that could have an effect on their flight being on time. Trains here seem to leave on time with little mystery or uncertainty for the passengers, who even running to catch their train before it pulls out are smiling, save those few dragging children.

While I sat people watching, one of my favorite pastimes as an octogenarian, at least 85% of those passing by had smiles. I can’t recall seeing that in any airport in recent years. Santa Polonia was a great place for people watching. I arrived about 6 hours early, tired of walking the neighborhood of my hotel. The building and facilities of the station are as worn as the bench I was on but there were several people cleaning so, although not spotless, the place was as clean as any of the airports I have been stuck in lately.

Another advantage is no standing in a long line to be X-rayed, or scanned, or groped. At the largest train station in Madrid, Atochoa, where I had to transfer on my way to Seville, my luggage did have to go through a machine, but I didn’t have to take my computer out of my backpack, or empty my pockets, or take off my belt. As an old guy I haven’t had to take off my shoes for the past 8 years. Eventually I tired of people watching in Lisbon, put my luggage in a locker, cost 6 Euros, left the station, wandered the neighborhood, found a nice little restaurant and had a nice meal and a couple of glasses of a very nice red wine. Then wandered back into the station to gather my luggage and board my train about 15 minutes before it left.

I word of caution. A first-class Euro rail ticket doesn’t provide a 1stclass seat or berth on any train. You have to make a reservation ahead of time. Something I tried to do from the states but was unable to navigate their computer system to get it done. There were no 1st class berths available for the night train and I still had to pay 29 euros for the required reservation in tourist class. Almost 12 hours in a lurching, often stopping, 6 X 5 cell with two bunks and 3 strangers. I was not able to stretch out in the bunk, my feet and head were jammed into the walls. I should have opted for a seat in tourist class since I didn’t get any sleep in the birth. I was assigned a top bunk, impossible for me, but the guy assigned the bottom bunk was a graduate student from Mozambique. He switched with me and I took him to the bar car for some beers. A very affable young man. The first class accommodations appeared significantly better, but the bunks were about the same size. In Madrid I paid another 29 euros for a 1st class seat. 

Tomorrow I embark on the bike tour I booked for 6 days and 5 nights riding from Seville to Granada. Should be a blast.

Reviewed by K.C. Finn for Readers’ Favorite

Defender of the Texas Frontier is a work of historical fiction set in nineteenth-century America, which was penned by author David R. Gross. As the title suggests, this Texas-based novel focuses on the exploits of the Texas Rangers, who defended the ordinary people from raids by Comanches and bandits from the Mexican badlands. At the center of this group is real-life soldier John Coffey Hays, known as Jack, who joined the Rangers at a very young age and rose amongst the ranks until he became a fearless and admired captain. The novel follows Jack Hays’s exploits and supposes his psychological journey, and why he became such a pivotal figure in Texas history.

Mixing fact with fiction is done in such a skillful way by author David R. Gross that non-fiction fans are still sure to enjoy this retelling of Captain Hays and his rise to fame and reputation. I enjoyed the peppering of the text with authentic and well-researched history, but there are also moments when the author allows himself to play, especially with the younger Jack in his formative days amongst the Rangers. Military buffs are sure to enjoy the many defensive exploits which are recounted, and the camaraderie amongst Hays’s men, who would later go on to be reputable heroes and leaders in their own right. Overall, Gross has produced an immersive and interactive history novel which stays true to life but also heightens the action. Defender of the Texas Frontier is a recommended read for all history and western novel fans.

David R. Gross

Defender of the Texas Frontier: A Historical Novel

iUniverse, 242 pages, (paperback) $13.99, 9781532071560(Reviewed: August, 2019)

Review by Blueink reviews:

John Coffey (“Jack”) Hays was the most famous and charismatic of the Texas Rangersduring his tenure in the mid-1800s. In this meticulously researched novel, David R.Gross brings Hays’s story to life as narrated by his best friend, John Caperton andvarious other friends and enemies of the heroic lawman.

At 19 years old, Jack and John leave their homes in Tennessee and arrive in Nacogdoches, where Jack begins to establish his reputation by killing the town bully in self-defense at the local saloon. The bully is the first of many to meet their maker shortlyafter making Jack’s acquaintance.

This is a violent time in Texas, as settlers advance on lands previously held by the Comanche and/or the Mexican government. After joining a group under the command of respected leader “Deaf” Smith, Jack quickly rises through the ranks to captain, thencolonel, of what became known as the Texas Rangers.

By copying the tactics and violent cruelty of the Indians and Mexican military, Jack and his men are successful in wiping out many threats to the encroaching settlers. One ofthe amazing facts the author discloses is how Jack’s troop kept being disbanded because of insufficient funding; yet, when they were needed, the same men who hadn’tbeen paid before came back repeatedly, just to serve with Hays.

Some of Hays’s and his Texas Rangers’ exploits in this episodic novel are so similar that they border on repetitious. However, such similarities merely emphasize Hays’s remarkable career and make one wonder how he possibly survived. Gross doesn’tmince words when describing the atrocities Jack and his men visited on their enemies,and some will be shocked that the “good guys” were every bit as sadistic and vicious asthe Comanche warriors and Mexican army.

In all, Defender of the Texas Frontier is a fascinating window into a little-understoodperiod in America’s past, as well as an absorbing story about one hero’s westward expansion.

Also available as an ebook.

David R. Gross’s dramatic retelling of a historical legend, Defender of the Texas Frontier, captures an era as it follows a young man’s rise to hero status.

Nineteen-year-old John Coffey Hays missed fighting in the battle for Texas’s independence. Full of vim and vigor, Hays joins up with a ranging patrol to defend the Texas border. So begins his storied career, which spans close to two decades. Along the way, Hays leads a ragtag group of men and forges an elite squad known as Rangers. Hays and his Rangers defend the US while skirmishing with both Mexicans and local native tribes. As his exploits become legend, Hays continues to affect change in Texas that ripples outward.

Hays’s story is entwined with the Texas Rangers’s origins. Known as the toughest and most judicious lawmen in history, the Rangers are shown starting out as a rough group, but becoming a power to be reckoned with. With strong attention to historical detail, the narrative shows how Hays learns and evolves while helping his men do likewise.

The book’s tone blends textbook dryness with drama and reads like an embellished historical document. The story unfolds through two primary perspectives: Hays’s, and that of his childhood friend, John. The focus shifts back and forth between the two, with highlights given to other important characters, too. These character transitions round out the narrative, allowing each character to give it their own touch. Hays’s commander and the commander of the tribal army are two of these: Hays’s commander comments on tactics, military prowess, and his personal life, while the tribal army commander highlights the respect between the Texans and the tribe as both defend their lands. It’s an interesting dichotomy that enriches the narrative.

Frequent dialogue tags are almost unnecessary because of the distinctiveness of the characters’ voices, whose subtle vocal tics make their discussions engaging and individualized: one character, despite being able to converse in fluent Spanish, speaks Spanish with a southern drawl, and words like “Mexicans” come out as “mesicans.”

This fictionalized version of Jack Hays uses key events from his life to build up the legend, enjoyably following him from his youth into his established adulthood. It is an artful take on Texas history.

Defender of the Texas Frontier fleshes out a Texas legend with aplomb, setting him in the midst of an engaging historical adventure.

Reviewed by John M. Murray 
July 29, 2019

Just Released!

Just Released!John Coffey Hays is just nineteen when he arrives in the town of Nacogdoches Republic of Texas in 1836. Moments later when a man is killed, none of the witnesses dispute that Jack acted in self-defense. Despite his young age, Jack is a man who commands perhaps just as much fear as respect.

Although Jack is too late to enlist in the fight for Texas Independence, he soon joins the ranging company of Deaf Smith and begins a thirteen-year history of defending Texans from raids by Comanche bands and Mexican bandits. When he is just twenty-three, he is made a captain of the Texas Rangers. As he becomes known as a fearless fighter, Jack leads a group of men who will follow him anywhere and under any Continue Reading »

The Homestead Act of 1862

When the Southern states seceded and their Representatives and Senators abandoned Washington D. C. in 1861 the Republicans and other former Free-Soil advocates passed the Homestead Act of 1862. The purpose of this law was to expand the homesteading requirements of the Pre-emption Act of 1841 making it easier for loyal citizens of the Union to claim land and thereby expand the concept of the “yeoman farmer”. Andrew Johnson, George Henry Evans and Horace Greeley were the primary advocates and leaders of this effort.

The law provided that any citizen of the Union could claim 160 acres of public land if willing to settle on the property and farm the land for at least five years. A three-step process was required; 1) file an application giving the boundaries of the land and pay the required fee, 2) improve the land and 3) file for a deed of title after five years. The applicant had to be a citizen of the U. S. or have filed an intent to become a citizen, be at least twenty-one years of age or the head of a household. This last stipulation enabled single women and widows to make application. The only other requirement was that the applicant had never taken up arms against the government of the U. S. After the fourteenth amendment freed all slaves, former slaves could also file a claim.

In 1866 the Southern Homestead Act was passed by Congress and signed into law. This law made it possible for poor tenant farmers and sharecroppers living in the Southern states during Reconstruction to become landowners. It proved to be not as successful as anticipated because, despite low fees and other costs associated with taking up a claim, such as the purchase of tools, transportation to the claim, seed, livestock, and other necessities, most potential applicants were unable to move from where they were mired in abject poverty.

Initially immigrants, farmers with no land of their own, single women and all citizens or persons who had filed a declaration of their intention to become a citizen qualified for “free” land. With time the requirements changed. Slaves became qualified after the Fourteenth Amendment was ratified in 1868. South Asians and East Asians born in the U. S. were qualified after the Supreme Court ruled on the United States vs. Wong Kim Ark lawsuit in 1898. However, by 1998 almost all high-quality farm lands were claimed. For immigrants entering the country legally during the 1890’s most had to file a declaration of their intent to become a citizen to be admitted. During this time the bulk of the immigrants were from Europe. Immigrants from Asia were largely excluded. Immigrants from Africa were permitted but very few applied.

The research into land acquisition is for an upcoming book.

The Donation Land Claim Act of 1850:

America’s early wealth derived from land, huge amounts of it. The land was, of course, usurped from indigenous peoples who, according to the accepted dogma of the day, could not possibly utilize all the lands they claimed. This attitude was made more palatable because of the decimation of the indigenous population by diseases they had no acquired immunity to, genocide, and serial relocation to remove them from contact with the ever-increasing influx of immigrants who had little hope of owning their own land in the countries from which they came.

Most citizens living in the Northern states believed the future of America depended upon individual farmers who owned and operated their own farms. Southerners, in general, especially the owners of slaves, wanted to be able to purchase large tracts of land and use slave labor. The concept of the “yeoman farmer” derived from Jeffersonian concepts, powerful influences in American politics in the 1840’s and 1850’s. These ideas gave rise to the Free-Soil Party from 1848-1852 and to the “New” Republican party after 1854. Southern Democrats fought against, and managed to prevent the passage, of proposed homestead bills. Their fear was that free land would attract both European immigrants and poor Southern whites to the west. The balance of power would then shift and force the end of slavery.

The availability of huge tracts of apparently empty land provided the government with the ability to populate those lands, collect taxes, and grow the economy. People in financial trouble, or just looking to improve their lifestyle could obtain free, or at minimal cost, large portions of land from which, if they were willing to struggle and work hard, they could support a family and gain the numerous benefits of being property owners.

The Donation Land Claim Act of 1850 enabled settlers to claim lands (320 or 640 acres) in the Oregon Territory consisting of the current states of Washington, Oregon, Idaho and parts of Wyoming. During that time period one man, with the help of his family, could realistically plow and put into crop production between 40 and 80 acres. The Oregon Territory land was granted free of charge from 1850-1854 after which it could be purchased from the government for $1.25 per acre until the law expired in 1855.

The Donation Land Claim Act was proceeded by the Pre-emption Act of 1846:

This law was designed to “…appropriate the proceeds of sales of public lands… and to grant “pre-emptive rights” to squatters already occupying federal lands. The law was most used by early settlers in the Kansas and Nebraska territories. The law provided that squatters who were actually living on or had made improvements to lands owned by the federal government could purchase up to 160 acres for no less than $1.25 per acre, at a public auction. If a particular tract of land was not claimed it was auctioned to the highest bidder. The squatter had to be the head of a household, a citizen of the U.S. or an immigrant intending to become naturalized, and a resident on the claimed land for a minimum of 14 months. As usual enterprising people devised a multitude of strategies to circumvent the restrictions, not excepting perjury, to obtain land or otherwise game the system for speculation.

The Pre-emption Act also provided that Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Alabama, Missouri, Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas and Michigan, or any state admitted to the Union after the Act became law, to be paid 10% of the proceeds from the sale of these public lands. To preserve ownership of the claimed land, and gain title to it, the claimant had to live on it, or consistently work to improve it, for a minimum of 5 years. If the land remained idle for six months the government could reclaim it. This was rare. The Act helped establish the doctrine of Manifest Destiny.

 

There are other special circumstances affecting the gastrointestinal (GI) system that can result in impaction of the small or large colon. The formation of fecaliths (a dehydrating and hardening of feces to the extent that it becomes stone-like), enteroliths (a mineral concretion) and meconium-induced impaction (early accumulation of fetal feces in newborns). Horses that have a recent and significant decrease in exercise, usually from an injury, can develop large colon impactions. Twice-daily feedings of grain can result in a measurable increase (up to 15%) in fluids secreted into the bowl from the cardiovascular system which can result in hypotension (reduction of circulating blood volume). This causes the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone regulatory to be activated resulting in the reabsorption of more fluid from the GI tract. This results in a dehydration of the feces and can also result in an impaction.

Four types of displacement colic are described in horses. Displacement occurs because most of the bowel is not anchored to the body wall but suspended from the dorsal abdominal wall in the mesentery. It is therefore relatively easy for a portion to move out of its normal position. Left dorsal displacementoccurs when the pelvic flexure moves toward the space found between the spleen, the left kidney and the nephrosplenic ligament the structure that attaches the spleen and kidneys to the body wall. Right dorsal displacement occurs when the colon lodges between the cecum and the body wall. The pelvic flexure can move to a position closer to the diaphragm resulting in a volvulus, a 180-degree twist along the longitudinal axis. Torsion (a twist along the axis of the mesentery) can also occur. The mesentery is the diaphanous tissue supporting the bowel through which veins, arteries and nerves are carried from the dorsal abdominal wall to the intestine.

Any type of displacement can result in an occlusion of the blood supply (partial or complete) to the involved portion of the GI tract.

Left dorsal displacement will often resolve itself following conservative medical treatment. In recalcitrant cases your veterinarian may elect to anesthetize the horse, put it on its left side, then quickly roll it to its right side while repeatedly pushing on the abdomen. Obviously, this is not a maneuver to be attempted by only one person.

An intussusception of the bowel occurs when a section of intestine “telescopes” into an adjacent section. This most often occurs at the ileocecal junction. When this happens, surgical correction is the only effective treatment. This condition is most common in horses about one year old and is almost always associated with tapeworms, other parasites, small masses and foreign bodies or severe diarrhea.

Epiploic foramen entrapment occurs when a portion of the small intestine (rarely the colon) becomes lodged in the epiploic foramen, also known at the foramen of Winslow. This opening is the communication between the abdominal cavity and the omental bursa. Entrapment of a loop of bowel can also occur through a rent (tear) in the mesentery.

Proximal enteritis (inflammation of the gut lining) is usually the result of infectious organisms, particularly Salmonella and/orClostridium species. Fusarium(a large genus of filamentous fungi) can also be the cause of enteritis. Fusariuminfections occur most commonly in the Southeastern U.S. Overfeeding a high concentrate diet can also result in enteritis. Horses suffering from enteritis have an increased risk of laminitis and thrombophlebitis. Colitis (inflammation of the lining of the colon) is most often associated with infectious caused by Salmonella species, Clostridium difficileand/or Neorickettsia risticii. This last organism is the cause of Potomac Horse Fever. Ingestion of toxic agents such as arsenic or cantharidin, as well as several plant toxins can result in colitis as well.

Gastric ulceration is associated with confinement (lack of adequate exercise), infrequent feeding, a high concentrate diet, over-use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) drugs, and from the stress associated with shipping and/or performing.

Tumors that can affect the GI tract and result in colic include lipomas (fatty tumors) that form on the mesentery and stretch the connective tissue into a stalk as it enlarges. The stalk can wrap around a section of bowel, usually the small intestine. Neoplastic growths of the GI tract can also include lymphosarcoma, leiomyomas, adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas. The last of these usually involves the stomach.

Ileus is characterized by no, or very low, movement of the intestines. Between ten and fifty percent of horses will develop ileus following abdominal surgery, with over 80% of those animals having been operated on for correction of a strangulating obstruction. Diagnosis is made using ultrasound when more than three loops of intestine lack peristaltic waves.

Hernias can result in incorporation of a loop of bowel and signs of colic. Standardbred and Tennessee Walker stallions are prone to a large inguinal ring and inguinal hernias. Umbilical and diaphragmatic hernias are rare but can occur in any breed of horses.

Non-bowel related colic include the ingestion of toxins, uterine tears and torsions, disease of the liver, ovaries, spleen, urinary system, or testicular torsion. Inflammatory conditions of the pleura (lining of the lungs and thorax), uterine contractions, laminitis and rhabdomyolysis can all present with signs resembling colic.

Parasitic infestations with Parascaris equorum(roundworms), Anoplocephala perfoliate(tapeworms), cyathostomes(Strongylus-type roundworms) and Strongylus vulgariscan all result in colic. The larvae of Strongylusspecies migrate out of the GI system and find their way into the arterial system. They are sometimes found in the cranial mesenteric artery where they can cause vasospasm as well as blockage. The regular use of modern anthelminthics has reduced the incidence of this problem.

Impaction colic is most commonly found in the pelvic flexure of the colon. It usually consists of poorly digested food lodged where the colon turns back on itself and narrows (the pelvic flexure). This condition is easily diagnoses via rectal examination, an indispensable part of the physical exam when called on a colic case. This condition is most commonly seen when the horse is confined in a small space, not receiving enough exercise and is being fed a large volume of concentrated feed, pellets and/or grain. It can also occur if the animal’s teeth need floating or if there are other dental issues preventing normal chewing (mastication). It can also occur if the animal cannot take in adequate water.

Colonic impaction will almost always respond to medical treatment. Sometimes high enemas will resolve the issue when mineral oil pumped into the stomach is not sufficient to move the blockage.

In the Southeastern U.S. coastal Bermuda hay is commonly available and used to feed horses. This type of hay can result in an impaction of the terminal ilium, the portion of the small intestine where it joins with the cecum (a large blind sac where fermentation aids digestion of roughage) and the entrance into the colon (large intestine). Obstruction of the ilium can also be the result of ascarids (intestinal parasites) after the horse has been treated for the infestation and is passing large numbers of the dead parasites. It is most commonly seen in young horses following their first deworming. When equine tapeworms are an issue treatment can result from a blockage of these dead or stunned parasites in the small intestine. When this condition occurs, the animal will usually exhibit intermittent moderate to severe abdominal pain. Distended loops of small intestine can sometimes be found on rectal exam. Ultrasound diagnosis may be necessary to identify this type of colic. Severe cases may result in gastric reflux. This usually responds to nasogastric intubation and the release of the accumulated gases from the stomach. Cases that are non-responsive to routine treatment may respond to warm soapy water or carboxymethylcellulose enemas providing the site of impaction can be located and reached rectally.

Less commonly encountered is hypertrophy of the longitudinal and/or circumferential smooth muscle layers of the small intestine (ilium or jejunum). The condition may be idiopathic (of unknown cause), or neuronal dysfunction usually associated with parasitic migration, particularly of the larval stage of ascarids. It may also be the result of increased tone of the ileocecal valve. This leads to hypertrophy of the smooth muscle of the ilium because it has to push ingesta through a smaller orifice. This diagnosis is usually made during surgery and can occur following the removal of a portion of intestine and the anastomosis (rejoining of the bowel) resulting in stricture.

Sand colic can occur when horses are pastured on sandy or heavily over-grazed pastures or fed on the ground. When I practiced in Arizona (back in the 1960’s) it was relatively common for backyard horses kept in small corrals to be fed on the ground on loose dirt. The ingested dirt or sand mostly accumulates in the pelvic flexure but may also be found in the right dorsal colon or in the cecum. The sand or dirt will irritate the mucosa (lining) and can result in diarrhea. Examination of the manure will often reveal the presence of sand and/or dirt. Accumulation and the resulting weight and abrasion on the mucosa can also result in a lack of colonic motility rather than hypermotility and diarrhea and in severe cases, rupture and peritonitis.

The diagnosis is the result of careful observation of the conditions in which the animal is kept and fed, abdominal auscultation for the sounds of hyper or hypo motility (too much or too little) and gas accumulation. Radiographs or ultrasound may be required to make the diagnosis. Medical treatment with laxatives is often effective especially with the addition of psylliumhusk. Psylliumis the common name for several members of the plant genus Plantago. Commonly marketed products of this include; Metamucil, Pinch, Fybogel, Kansyl and Luelax. Mineral oil treatment alone is less effective since it will usually float on the surface of the accumulation without penetrating. Psylliumbinds to the sand and helps to remove it. Animals with this condition may also suffer from rapid overgrowth of Salmonellaor other bacteria so antibiotic added to the treatment may be indicated. If signs of severe colic do not respond to medical treatment within a few hours surgery is indicated. Where grazing or feeding on the ground cannot be avoided prophylactic treatment feeding a pelleted psylliumproduct may be recommended by your veterinarian.

Impactions of the cecum are uncommon. They can occur when horses ingest bedding or as a result of post-operative or other pain therapy involving the use of opioids resulting in GI stasis and constipation. Because of its function as a fermentation vat gas and fluid accumulation is rapid and can lead to rupture within a day or two, if not corrected surgically. The condition can usually be diagnosed on rectal exam but rupture can occur early in the progression of the condition.

Gastric impactions are rare. It can occur following ingestion of foods that swell after eating, ingestion of bedding or poor-quality roughage, dental problems, ingestion of a foreign object or disease that interferes with normal gastric function. Ingestion of persimmons form a sticky gel in the stomach and feeding haylage can be problematic. When I practiced in Arizona ingestion or feeding of mesquite beans was a problem. Feeding sugar beet pulp can also be problematic. Diagnosis using gastroscopy or ultrasound may be necessary. Gastric impactions will often respond to treatment with water or other fluids via nasogastric intubation.