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Archive for the ‘Regular column in MyEdmondsNews’ Category

According to the records of the Animal Poison Control Center (APCC) of the ASPCA human prescription medications top the list of potential toxins most commonly ingested by pets for the seventh year in a row. The APCC handled more than 167,000 cases in 2014, the most recent year for which statistics are currently available, and 26,407 of those cases (about 16%) were from owners whose pets snatched and gobbled medications prescribed for family members.

Dogs and cats explore the world with their mouths, similar to small children. Unlike small children our pets are strong enough and agile enough to locate and secure pill containers then chew through them to consume the contents. Dogs are especially attracted to containers they observe their owners handling on a daily basis. Notice Fido watching you the next time you take your pills. What happens if you drop one, do you retrieve it faster than your pet?

Over-the-counter medications, including herbal and other natural supplements are also potential toxicants. Toxicity is all about dose per size and many natural products are innocuous in doses appropriate for adults but can be toxic for smaller pets. These products resulted in more calls in 2014 than in previous years (about 25,000 calls) and there are over 6,900 different products that comprise this category.

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The mitral or left atrioventricular valve is one of four one-way valves in the heart. It controls blood flow from the left atrium, where oxygenated blood coming from the lungs collects, to the left ventricle where arterial blood is pumped out into the body. When the left ventricle contracts the mitral valve closes thus preventing blood from going back into the atrium. With a slight delay the aortic valve, the outlet valve from the left ventricle, opens and blood is pumped out into the arterial system.

Two kinds of mitral valve disease occur. Stenosis or narrowing of the valve results in interference with the blood’s ability to flow into the left ventricle. Insufficiency is the inability for the valve to close properly, and allows blood to be pumped back through the valve into the left atrium. Either condition can result in the valve not closing properly resulting in blood leaking, regurgitating, or flowing back into the left atrium. When this happens a murmur can usually be detected.

Mitral valve disease can be the result of a birth defect, or acquired as the result of bacterial or viral infections, some types of cancer that affect the heart muscle or just as a result of the aging process, particularly in smaller breeds of dogs. When the mitral valve does not function properly the ability of the left atrium to empty is compromised and the larger than normal volume of blood in the left atrium causes the pressure in that chamber to increase. As a result blood flow out of the lungs is compromised. Depending upon the severity of the lesion the outcome can be congestive heart failure characterized by pulmonary edema, the collection of fluid in the lungs.

Congenital mitral valve stenosis is more commonly found in Newfoundland and bull terrier breeds but can occur in any breed including mixed-breeds. Acquired mitral valve disease, particularly age associated degenerative valve disease, can occur in any breed of dog but appears to happen more frequently in the smaller breeds and is endemic in King Charles spaniels. Mitral valve disease in the King Charles spaniel has been shown to be a polygenetic disease that can afflict over fifty percent of all individuals of this breed by the time they are five years old. By age ten any of these dogs that survive almost always demonstrate signs of the condition.

Depending upon the severity and progression of the valve disease many dogs will have no clinical signs in the early stages. We usually notice that as the dog gets older it seems to lose energy. Your veterinarian will usually detect a murmur, the result of the blood regurgitating through the diseased valve. This results in turbulent flow and can be detected before any clinical signs are noticed. The loudness of the murmur is not always associated with the severity of disease. A small area of leaking can result in a very turbulent and noisy jet while a large area might not create enough turbulence to create a loud murmur. If the disease progresses the dog may exhibit exercise intolerance, coughing, trouble breathing, increased rate of respiration, weakness and collapse with exercise.

The diagnosis is usually made by auscultation, use of the stethoscope. If the dog is showing clinical signs of congestive heart failure your veterinarian, or the veterinary cardiologist to whom you have been referred, may need to take X-rays, an electrocardiogram, an ultra-sound exam or even catheterize the animal to determine the severity of the disease, the prognosis and the level of treatment required.

Treatment for this condition is palliative, designed to control the symptoms and delay the progression of the disease. Medical treatment cannot cure the problem. Because the valve usually degenerates slowly the treatment can change over time. A variety of drugs are used depending on the stage and progression of disease. These include diuretics, vasodilators, positive inotropic drugs (drugs that increase the force of contraction of the heart muscle) like digitalis, and other agents that may prove beneficial in certain individuals. In humans if the patient is showing signs of heart failure as a result of mitral valve disease the treatment of choice is open-heart surgery and heart valve replacement with a prosthetic valve. This is possible to do in dogs, and available in some very specialized institutions, but it is expensive and usually not an option to be considered.

This disease can also occur in cats and almost any other species of animals but is most commonly identified in dogs. The problem is reasonably easy for your veterinarian to detect and another good reason for regular physical exams.

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Ingesting hops can be highly toxic to susceptible dogs. Hops can act as an inciting cause or trigger for malignant hyperthermia but it seems the animal must have a genetic pre-disposition for this to occur.

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Scientific Name: Humulus lupulus, Family: Cannabidaceae

Malignant hyperthermia, an uncontrolled increase in body temperature, is a rare life-threatening condition usually triggered by exposure to general anesthetic agents, most commonly volatile anesthetics, in certain genetically susceptible humans, pigs and horses. Caffeine can also act as a “trigger”. Hops have been shown to trigger the reaction in susceptible dogs and cats. The triggers can induce a drastic and uncontrolled increase in oxidative metabolism, the utilization of oxygen, in skeletal muscle. This overwhelms the body’s ability to regulate body temperature. The result is high fever leading to circulatory collapse and death if not immediately treated.

The susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia is often inherited as an autosomal dominant disorder, for which there are at least 6 genetic sites of interest. In 50–70% of cases, the propensity for malignant hyperthermia is due to a mutation of the ryanodine receptor located on the sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal muscle cells where calcium ions are stored. The ryanodine receptor acts to open calcium ion channels that allows the ion to enter the skeletal muscle cells and initiate contraction. Malignant hyperthermia results when the normal processes of entry and subsequent removal of calcium ions from the muscle cells are interfered with. The process of sequestering excess calcium ion within the cell consumes large amounts of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the main cellular energy carrier, and results in the generation of the excessive heat (hyperthermia) that is the hallmark of the disease. The muscle cell is damaged by the depletion of ATP and possibly the high temperatures and cellular constituents “leak” into the circulation.

The other major known causative gene for malignant hyperthermia is the protein encoding a different type of calcium channel. There are two known mutations in this protein. When these mutant channels are expressed in human embryonic kidney cells, the resulting channels are five times more sensitive to activation by caffeine (and presumably volatile anesthetic agents and hops). Other mutations causing malignant hyperthermia have been discovered but. in most cases. the relevant genes remain to be identified.

Research into malignant hyperthermia was limited until the discovery of “porcine stress syndrome” in Danish Landrace and other breeds of pigs. This “awake triggering” was not observed in humans and cast doubt on the value of the animal model. However susceptible humans were discovered to develop malignant hyperthermia the “awake trigger” in stressful situations. This supported the use of the pig model for research.

Pig farmers began to expose piglets to halothane. Those that died were malignant hyperthermia-susceptible, thus saving the farmer the expense of raising a pig whose meat was not marketable. This also reduced the use of breeding stock with the genes. The condition in swine was also found to be due to a defect in ryanodine receptors. The causative mutation in humans was only discovered after similar mutations had been described in pigs. Another argument for the use of animal models in research. Sorry, that was my career for thirty-six years and I still have to climb onto the soap box from time to time.

A causative mutated ryanodine receptor gene has been identified in Quarter Horses and other breeds and is inherited as an autosomal dominant. It can be triggered by overwork, anesthesia, or stress. In dogs the susceptibility seems to be autosomal recessive.

A malignant hyperthermia mouse model has been developed using molecular biology techniques. These mice display signs similar to those in susceptible animals when exposed to halothane as a trigger. This model was used to demonstrate that the injection of dantrolene, a muscle relaxant, reversed the response to the halothane in these mice and in humans. The current treatment of choice is the intravenous administration of dantrolene, discontinuation of triggering agents, and supportive therapy directed at correcting hyperthermia, acidosis, and organ dysfunction. Treatment must be instituted rapidly on clinical suspicion of the onset of malignant hyperthermia. After the widespread introduction of treatment with dantrolene, the mortality of malignant hyperthermia fell from 80% in the 1960s to less than 5%. However, the clinical use of dantrolene has been limited by its low solubility in water. This means it must be dissolved in large volumes of fluids complicating clinical management. Azumolene is 30 times more water-soluble than dantrolene and also works to decrease the release of intracellular calcium by its action on the ryanodine receptor. In susceptible pigs it was just as potent as dantrolene. However it has not yet been approved for use in humans. Hopefully those clinical trials are in progress. Research in mouse models continues in efforts to more completely describe the genetic mechanisms that trigger this condition.

So we know that hops can be poisonous to at least some breeds of dogs and also sometimes to cats. The cones are the culprit when enough of them are eaten. The initial symptoms are restlessness, panting, abdominal pain and vomiting. In serious cases, symptoms progress into seizures, rapid heart rate and life-threatening high body temperature. Greyhounds seem to be the most susceptible breed but also susceptible are golden retrievers, St. Bernards, Dobermans, border collies and English springer spaniels. Hops grown by aficionados pose a threat when the mature cones are low enough for the animal to reach or drop to the ground. With home-brewing becoming more popular we could see an increase in hops poisoning. A potentially bigger threat than hops plants is dogs getting into bags of stored hops or spent, dumped hops sediment.

Dogs are far more sensitive to ethanol than humans. Even ingesting a small amount of a product containing alcohol can cause significant intoxication. No matter how popular beer drinking dogs are on U-Tube hops poisoning is probably not a threat but intoxication from the alcohol is. Alcohol intoxication results in vomiting, loss of coordination, disorientation and stupor. Sound familiar? In severe cases, coma, seizures and death may occur. Dogs showing mild signs of alcohol intoxication should be closely monitored, and dogs that are so inebriated that they can’t stand up must be taken to your veterinarian.

 

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This is a photo of one of many small restaurants inside the Mercado del Puerto. All of the separated restaurants have an open, wood fueled, grill like this one where most of the cooking takes place.

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This is the chunk of loin I was served. Alexis had a rack of lamb with at least ten chops. The meat portions were gigantic, but tender and tasty, a carnivore’s kind of place.

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We saw several of these horse-drawn carts while out and about in the city. Although there is full employment in Uruguay, jobs for anyone who wants to work, one sees people going through dumpsters to salvage paper, cardboard, plastic bottles, and other recyclables. The horses are very calm amidst the heavy, fast moving, car, bus and truck traffic. Lane markers seem to be just a suggestion with two lanes accommodating at least three vehicles, more lanes more vehicles. Horns are used to let other drivers know where you are.

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Out in the countryside horse-drawn carts are even more common and are used to transport goods short distances. It is obviously much less expensive than gasoline that sells for about $8.00 a gallon. The high price of gasoline also accounts for the small size of the automobiles, although we did see plenty of Mercedes and other luxury vehicles. Protected parking space is also a premium and we saw many houses with just enough room to squeeze the car inside the security gate.

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Most but not all houses in the city were guarded by high security, walls topped with wire or broken glass, or tall spiked bars topped with electric fences, windows covered with bars and/or heavy shutters.

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The yellow sign warns of the charged wires above the ten-foot tall spiked fence.

We asked about all the security and received a variety of answers. It appears that violent crime, including home invasions, is rare. There is some breaking and entering and stealing from vacation homes when it is clear the owners are away. Mostly, we were told, the crime rates are quite low but when there is a crime the news media tend to sensationalize it and thus there is a high level of paranoia. This paranoia is fed and encouraged by a home security industry that seems quite robust. We talked to some home and business owners with lower levels of security and they seemed to be unafraid and unconcerned. Certain areas are considered to have higher crime rates than others, so that’s not unlike our own neighborhoods, but we did see a lot of security.

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Click on this link to read the review:

<a href=”http://www.prlog.org/12440447-travels-with-charlize-in-search-of-living-alone.pdf”>Travels With Charlize; in search of living alone</a>

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Here is another photo of the band and dancers we saw on our visit to the Mercado del Puento described in my last posting:

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The music and dancing is called Candombe originating with African slaves it has become part of the culture and heritage of Uruguay. The style of music features three different drums, chico, repique and piano. Candombe refers to dancing societies founded by persons of African descent in the third decade of the 19th century. The term is from the Kikongo language and means “pertaining to blacks”. The dance originated as a local Montevidean fusion of various African traditions. It features complicated choreography including sections with wild rhythms, a plethora of improvised and intricate steps combined with energetic body movement. Each year there is a special parade in Montevideo called “Desfile de Llamadas”, that winds through the Sur and Palermo neighborhoods with prizes awarded for the best new song (music), dancers, costumes, etc., etc. We are told it is very competitive with many different categories so there are lots of winners and lots of entries. Got to get back here to see it!

This is one of many Sycamore-lined street we’ve walked down, …some up. We were told there are well over 400,000 trees in Montevideo, one for every three inhabitants.

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Here’s a friend we made while walking through the all but overwhelming granite and marble monuments of the Buceo Cemetery, a weird mix of a short-hair and long-hair.

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Here is a worker power-washing the side of a skyscraper a couple of blocks from our hotel.

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“I want to go to Marfa,” Alexis said, “ it’s on my bucket list.”

“What and where is Marfa?” I responded.

“Marfa, Texas, it’s an artists’ colony and has a hotel from the 50’s completely retro but renovated. That’s where I want to stay. There is also an art installation outside of town, a fake Prada store. I want a photo of me in front of that. Marfa was written up in Dwell magazine and it was also on Sixty Minutes. It’s supposed to be like Taos was for artists in the 50’s. If you Google Prada Marfa you’ll see the art installation.”

So I said: “Sure why not, I’m into art and artists and I’ve never been to Marfa.”

Marfa is not someplace you go to on the way to someplace. South and east of El Paso, sixty miles north of the border, not too far, by Texas standards, to the Big Bend National Wilderness area where my sons and I went backpacking back in the day.

So we drove to Las Cruces and stayed overnight, not much to comment on. Have you ever been to Las Cruces? The next day on to Marfa with the fake Prada store about 35 miles from town. We went past it at 75 mph. Two carloads of people were stopped to take photos. Alexis said; “Let’s go on and come back tomorrow, I want to clean up before the photo and there is a crowd now. We don’t want strangers in the photo.”

Today we went back. The big Prada-Marfa signs above the door on either side were gone. Ripped off during the night? The online photos of the installation show it with the signs in place. The displays of shoes and purses inside were still intact but the magic was gone. It’s all about the sign!

Here is Alexis, being held up by the sign thieves. IMG_0020

Charlize with her friends Alexis, Mimi and Zsa Zsa near the pool at the Thunderbird Hotel.

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I left a copy of Travels With Charlize at the local bookstore and during lunch had a nice conversation with Ken Whitley, another writer, retired from Shell Oil and a Marfa resident for the last seventeen years. He stopped by our table while we were eating lunch to compliment Alexis on her jewelry and her shoes. Not an uncommon event.

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